Wednesday, April 18, 2012

Information About Solar Energy

The sun is approximately 93 million miles away from the planet Earth, yet it is still possible for the sun's rays to provide energy to heat our homes and produce electricity to power our appliances.
Light As Energy
Light is a complex component of our natural world that can be regarded as either a particle or wave. The dual nature of light does not affect the ability of this form of energy to be harnessed as a practical source of energy.
Cells made primarily from silicon are now used to convert the energy from sunlight directly into electricity. This process is made possible because silicon produces an electric charge when exposed to sunlight.
Direct Current
Photovoltaic cells produce a direct current, which is usually modified to alternating current by a small transformer.
Passive Solar Energy
Passive solar energy is created when the sun's rays fall upon a dense, reflective surface. Heat then radiates from the passive collector or reflective surface to warm the enclosed space.
Solar Heated Water
Water can be heated directly or indirectly by the sun to raise the temperature of the water. The heated liquid is then pumped through the water heater as either heat or just plain hot water.

How to Build a LEGO Road Roller

Typical Lego sets provide a free-wheeling, imagination-run-wild construction experience. But, Lego construction sets, such as the Lego Road Roller set 30003, direct users to build specific and customizable replicas of heavy equipment and their operators. As with other Lego construction toys, the simplicity of its parts makes the assembly process a basic yet educational experience for young children.
1.Assemble your construction worker. Snap the blue torso section into the blue leg piece and then attach the yellow head and red hat.
2.Assemble the side pieces. To each long, thin, 1-by-8 yellow piece, attach a black "plus" cylinder at each end. Over each cylinder, attach a gray nut. Then, place a large gray roller wheel on each cylinder, followed by a second nut.
3.Connect the two side pieces. With the wheel sides facing inward, attach the center circle of each side piece's yellow base to the gray 2-by-4 piece. The wheels from the two side pieces should now be flush against one another.
4.Attach the flat, black 2-by-6 piece between the two sets of wheels. Centered and on top of this piece, place the yellow brick that has the lowered 2-by-2 center section. Its upward extensions should be over each set of roller wheels. This creates the seating base.
5.Attach the safety light. Snap the gray pole onto one side of the roller's back end. On top of the pole, attach the orange lamp piece.
6.Attach the seating and controls. On the rear extension of the yellow seating base, attach the yellow seat-back. To the front extension, attach the steering wheel. At the back of the center depression, attach the flat, gray 1-by-2 piece. On the front of the center depression, place the 1-by-2 black grill piece.

How to Drive a Bulldozer

A bulldozer is a specialized tractor that is used to level ground. It has two main parts---the tractor itself and the blade. The blade is the flat, metal plate on the front of the tractor that levels the ground. You can rent a bulldozer in many states if you have a driver's license, but it is preferable watch a professional before driving it yourself.
1.Turn the key in the ignition to start the bulldozer.
2.Hold your foot over the brake. Be ready to brake at any time.
3.Grasp the joystick at your left. Slowly push it in the direction you would like to go.
4.To decelerate, press the deceleration pedal. It is located next to the brake.
5.To control the blade, use the joystick to your right.
6.To level the ground, slowly lower the blade until it is flush with the ground's surface. Then move the bulldozer forward slowly. The blade should shave the uneven ground as it moves.

How to Use LED Strip Lights

LED light strips are made for a variety of uses. Interior and exterior strips allow custom colored lighting to windows, doors, cars, trucks or walls. Depending on your LED strips, power comes from 9-volt batteries or internal batteries much like those found in modern digital watches. Most LED strips allow you to cut custom lengths and sizes. Some LED strips have adhesive backs allowing you to place them onto clean surfaces.
1.Wash the surface onto which you want to place the LED strips. If attaching them to a car running board or bumper, use soapy water and sponges to clean the surface of grime and grit. Dry the surface using rags or paper towels. Clean any glass surfaces prior to adding the LED strips.
2.Measure out the distance you want LED strip light added. Cut down the LED light strip using scissors or a knife. Measure twice, cut once. If your LED strips (and most have this) uses adhesive backing, peel off the tape from the back.
3.Place the LED light strip onto the surface, sticky side down. Use your fingers to push out any air-bubbles under the strip as you place it onto the surface.
4.Plug the red and black wires into the 12-volt battery tab, typically included with the LED strips and plug the tab onto the top of the battery to turn on the led spotlight.

How to Remove the Ballast for LED Tube Lights

LED lights are becoming more popular for home use with the rise in concern for energy efficiency. LED bulbs are capable of providing light longer than and at a fraction of the cost of regular incandescent bulbs. Replacing or rewiring an LED tube light can sometimes require removal of the ballast that holds the cabling for the light. Removal is fairly simple and requires only a few short steps.
1.Unhook the power running into the light fixture before attempting to remove the ballast or any other part of the fixture.
2.Put on a pair of insulated gloves and remove the covering from the light fixture.
3.Unscrew any existing bulb or led tube light and place it gently aside in a safe place.
4.Locate the ballast on the fixture. The ballast in a led spotlight is often located on the far end, near where the wiring enters, but is sometimes more centrally located.
5.Carefully clip the wires that are attached to the ballast, leaving a good amount of excess if you ever plan to rewire it, and then look for the fastening screws that hold the ballast in place.
6.Unscrew any fasteners that are holding the ballast in place to finish the removal process. Some ballasts may be clipped into place, requiring no tools to remove. If this is the case for your ballast, simply slide it in the opposite direction of the clips to remove it.

How to Select Sanitary Napkins

Women have two primary options for personal protection during a menstrual cycle, sanitary napkins and tampons. Follow these steps to make the appropriate choice.
1.Decide whether to use a sanitary panty liner alone or with a tampon. Some women use sanitary napkins or pads as a backup for tampons or others use pads as the sole form of protection.
2.Consider different brands, sizes, styles and thicknesses. The napkin needs to cover the vulva, external female genital area, entirely to prevent leakage. Most pad designs accommodate a size 6 panty size. Consider a plus size, extra long or overnight protection for full coverage of larger panty sizes.
3.Select a style or shape based on your lifestyle. Sanitary napkins come with or without wings and are curved or contoured to prevent leakage on the sides.
4.Think about absorbency and select a pad that is very absorbent and keeps you dry and comfortable. If your pad embarrasses you by leaking then try a higher level of absorbency or a new brand.
5.Find the proper thickness depending on your level of physical activity. Some prefer thick protection while others use thin pads to serve their needs without the bulkiness.
6.Discover the best support system for preventing pad slippage. Adhesive strips on the bottom of the pad and wrap-around wings keep the napkin in place inside the panty. Notice how well a napkin's support lasts after exercise or exposing it to other consistent movement or moisture like sweat.

Important Factors About Industrial Lighting

Adequate lighting is an important element in creating a productive work environment. Whether you work in an office, on an assembly line or another industrial setting, the right led industrial light is more than just being able to see well.
Light affects productivity because it affects your emotions and attitude. Dim lighting, as on a cloudy day outdoors, can make people feel more depressed and have less energy. Poor lighting increases employee absences, due to illness and decreases worker output.
Natural Lighting
Natural light is good for humans. Natural light is good for humans.
Natural sunlight from skylights and windows is beneficial in industrial settings. Natural light creates positive effects on human health. Natural daylight includes UVB rays, which cause Vvitamin D to form in the skin. Without adequate Vitamin D, the body can develop bone deficiencies.
Another benefit to including natural daylight in industrial settings is improved employee morale. Natural light makes people feel more energetic and less stressed.
Bad Light
If a worker can't see, then he can't work. If a worker can't see, then he can't work.
Bad lighting causes increased eye strain, headaches and increases the chance of accidents in the workplace. Bad lighting is not just dim lighting. Bad lighting can be caused by using incorrect fixtures.
Sometimes, drop lights or hanging lights are used, which focuses the led spot light in a general area and leaves the rest of the areas dim. These lights tend to cause heavy shadows and excess glare on computer screens. This can lead to lost productivity due to eye strain.

How to Measure Hex Bolts

Hex bolts are the most commonly used bolt type. The hex-shaped head of these bolts is seen in all types of mechanical assemblies, and yet some confusion remains as to the proper way to measure a bolt. The five factors that must be known to determine the proper replacement for a heave hex bolt are length, shank length, diameter, threads per inch and grade.
1.Place the zero end of the measuring scale against the bottom of the hex head, and read the scale to determine the total length of the bolt. Bolt length increases in 1/4-inch increments. Remember to use a metric scale when measuring metric hex nut.
2.Measure the unthreaded portion of the bolt. This is the shank length and must be the same on the replacement bolt to insure the proper tensile rating is maintained.
3.Measure across the threaded end of the bolt to determine bolt diameter. The smallest bolt is 1/4 inch in diameter. Hex bolts diameters increase in 1/16 inch increments.
4.Using a thread gauge, determine the threads per inch. If a thread gauge is not available, count the threads in the first inch of the hex bolt. You must use a thread gauge when measuring metric bolts.
5.Note any markings on the bolt head. These are the symbols denoting the hardness grade of the bolt. Replace the bolt with one that has the same markings.

How to Paint a Display Stand

Display stand is  designed to meet almost every need and function. You can find display stands showcasing posters, signs, newspapers, artwork, books and more, whether used commercially or in the privacy of your home. You don't have to keep a display stand looking as if it is still in its original condition. Painting, though, will keep stands looking good while creating colorful focal points. Personalizing your own display stand can even become an artistic endeavor.
1.Envision first how you want to paint your display rack. Think about its placement, whether in your home or office. Picture the designs. Consider what colors will look best. Figure out what colors will complement the display and what kind of paint and brushes you will need.
2.Use oil paint, if possible, because it is easy to prepare and use. However, your ideas for painting will take precedence in your choice of paint. Collect as many different colors of paint for versatility. White and black paint are necessary to lighten or darken your painting. Make sure to have enough for at least two coats.
3.Buy paintbrushes and trays at a craft store or online. Some people use paint rollers they dip in rectangular paint trays to reach large areas of a display stand. Get brushes of different sizes so you can paint many different kinds of details. Finding an easel will help with painting details of different sizes and colors.
4.Set up your painting area with your paints, newspaper, brushes and water containers. Start painting the first coat of your display stand. You can choose a solid color or speckle it with different colors. Use water to wash the brush so no paints mix unintentionally.
5.Allow 24 hours for the paint to dry. Paint your second coat once you are sure the paint is thoroughly dry. This is the time to make one color more solid or to add extra detail. Wait another 24 hours to let it dry, being careful not to set any items on the stand if it is still wet.

How to Change LED Light Bulbs

LED bulbs have many advantages over other types of bulbs, with one of the biggest being that they have a much longer life span than any other type of light bulb. However, LED tube, like every other bulb, will eventually burn out. When this happens, the process of changing the bulb is relatively simple to do.
1.Turn off the light fixture. For added safety, unplug the lamp as well.
2.Slowly remove the burnt out bulb. You can usually do this by turning the bulb counterclockwise.
3.Replace the LED light bulbs with a new bulb. Install the bulb by turning it in the direction opposite what you did to loosen the old bulb (Typically the direction is clockwise.)
4.Plug the lamp in, and turn on the light fixture. If the bulb does not turn on, turn the light off and try tightening the bulb further.
5.Discard the old light bulb in an environmentally safe way (see Tips section).

The Disadvantages of Rubber Speed Bumps

Speed bumps are designed to control traffic and reduce dangerous situations. Speed bumps are commonly made from asphalt, but rubber speed bump made from recycled materials offers a more environmentally friendly alternative. Rubber speeds bumps are easier to install than their counterparts and are portable, unlike asphalt speed bumps. Despite their benefits, rubber speed bumps do have a number of disadvantages.
Additional Maintenance
Asphalt and concrete speeds bumps are installed on a permanent basis and require only minimal maintenance. Rubber speeds bumps, however, are not nearly as secure and require additional repairs. The installation components of rubber speed bumps can loosen from the vibration of heavy traffic, causing the speed bump to separate. In addition, markings on rubber speed bumps also require more frequent maintenance than asphalt speed bumps. Paint and traffic marking strips do not adhere as well to road marking machine as other surfaces.
The installation of speed bumps can trigger a negative response from drivers. Rubber speed bumps are designed to be portable, so installing a rubber speed bump is a much easier task. While simple installation can be an advantage, it also means removing the speed bumps is a relatively easy process. As a result, residents or drivers against the speed bump installation can remove it using basic tool.
Unlike asphalt speed bumps which can remain in upstanding condition for years, rubber speed bumps can deteriorate quickly and even need replacement after a matter of months. Extreme heat and cold can greatly reduce the lifespan of rubber speed bumps. With wear, the joints begin to separate, creating potentially unsafe gaps. Edges deteriorate and begin to break away from the main structure. Heavy traffic also begins to break down rubber speed bumps with traffic grooves beginning to form. Deteriorating rubber speed bumps are a hazard to drivers and can cause significant damage to the roadway.

Cone Crusher Specs

Cone crushers are one of the workhorses of the mining and aggregate industries. They are used as secondary crushers to reduce large rocks and ore of medium hardness into smaller more easily managed pieces. Cone crushers work by funneling large rocks from the top of the crusher onto a round cone. This cone is ground against an inverted bowl, similar to a mortar and pestle, such that large pieces of ore are crushed and allowed to fall into smaller and tighter levels of the cone until the smallest pieces eventually fall free.
900 Millimeter Cone Crusher
The 900 series cone crusher is available in three different models: coarse, medium and fine. The coarse model can process up to 269 tons of material per hour, breaking each piece from an initial size of 150 millimeters down to approximately 38 millimeters. The mid-range "medium" model is suitable for crushing 69 to 144 tons of material per hour down to a resultant size of 19 to 30 millimeters in diameter. The fine media crusher is usually a "short head" model used for crushing materials to less than 18 millimeters. It is capable of handling 61 to 95 tons of material per hour.
All three models are powered by electric motors generating 75 to 100 horsepower at a maximum speed of 630 revolutions per minute. Though these models are some of the smallest available, they aren't lightweight. Each one tips the scales at a massive 10,500 kilograms and stand approximately 2.7 meters high.
1200 Millimeter Cone Crusher
Like the 900 series, the mid-sized 1200 series of jaw crusher is divided into three models: coarse, medium and fine. The coarse model is capable of handling more than 460 tons of material per hour. When used for a medium grind, a 1200 millimeter diameter cone crusher is able to process between 102 and 216 tons of material per hour, depending on how large or small the resulting particles need to be. For the most finely ground materials, the short head model can handle 92 to 146 tons of ore per hour and discharge material measuring 9 to 30 millimeters in diameter.
Cone crushers in the 1200 size range are powered by motors that generate 125 to 150 horsepower and spin the main drive axle at 560 revolutions per minute. Though they are not the largest crushers, the 1200 series of crushers each weigh in around 19,940 kilograms and stand 3.2 meters tall.

How to Use a Key Cutting Machine

At one time, making duplicate keys required hand grinding or filing a key blank. The method was difficult to master, and only a locksmith could do the job accurately. Today's technology makes creating a duplicate key quick and cost-effective. Hardware stores are now equipped with automatic or semiautomatic key cutting machine, which is able to follow the shape of the teeth along the key while grinding the blanks into precise copies.
1.Insert the original key in the vice with the teeth facing upward.
2.Insert the blank key into the second vice, where the cutting blade is located.
3.Close the protective cover and activate the machine. The micrometer will trace the original key. It automatically controls the angles and depth of the high-speed cobalt blade.
4.Once the duplication is complete, turn off the machine and remove both keys. Use the high-speed wire brush to polish off any rough edges or spurs.
5.Place the new key and the original against each other and compare. They should be an identical match. If not, another key may need to be cut.

How to Paint Rubber Balls

You can paint a rubber ball to change its color and leave it with a shiny new exterior. Rubber balls are available in a wide variety of sizes to accommodate all kinds of active play. It may be difficult to find a ball in both the size and color scheme you are looking for. A few layers of paint and a little patience takes the rubber sphere from just another bouncing ball to a personalized toy craft.
1.Soak the corner of a cloth in isotropy alcohol and thoroughly wipe down the surface of the rubber ball.
2.Position a pedestal in the center of your painting area (don't forget to cover the floor with some newspaper). The pedestal can be a toilet paper tube for larger balls and an empty pen tube for smaller rubber balls. Place the ball on the pedestal.
3.Apply rubber primer to the topside of the ball. Allow the primer to dry according to the manufacturer's instructions before turning the ball upside down and covering the other side with primer. Let it dry.
4.Apply a thin coat of the latex paint by holding the can at least 8 inches from the surface of the bounce ball at all times. Turn the ball over on the pedestal and paint the other side once the first half has dried completely. Continue spinning the ball around in the pedestal and adding thin layers of paint until you are satisfied with the color.

Can You Paint Waterproof Wall Panels?

Waterproof panels are made from plastic or vinyl and are used to protect areas that commonly get wet such as bathrooms and exterior walls. In most cases it is possible to paint this plastic using a strict application method. However, all paints should be checked on a small area of panel before painting an entire wall.
PVC Panel
PVC is a common form of plastic used to make waterproof panels. The PVC is melted and formed to look like real wood. Usually the company that manufacturers the panels will offer several different finishes and colors. However, if you live in a house that already has PVC wall panels and you do not like the color, then it becomes necessary to paint the panels. PVC plastic can be painted, but there are a few tricks to it.
HDPE Panel
HDPE is another type of plastic that is commonly used to make wall panels. The panels are made in the same way as PVC panels with melting, molding and shaping. HDPE is also sold in a variety of colors and finishes, although not quite as many as PVC because it is a newer product. HDPE is used more often in industrial and commercial settings. If waterproof panels are located in your home it is likely that they are PVC plastic rather than HDPE. However, the painting procedure for both plastics is the same.
Preparation is essential for a proper painting bond for any plastic and waterproof panels. The panels should be thoroughly cleaned with grease-fighting soap and sanded with a high-grit sand paper. The panels should then be wiped down with an acetone solution to get rid of any dust and grease. Immediately wipe the surface down with a clean, damp cloth to remove the acetone. Any acetone still on the plastic will cause adhesion problems. If this step is ignored the paint will not stick to the plastic and it will flake and peel away causing unsightly bubbles, flakes and scratches on the surface of the panels.
Once the surface is prepped, painting can begin. Use a paint that is designed for use with plastic. There are several forms of acrylic primers designed for use with plastic. You can also use an epoxy primer. Make sure the solution is water-based rather than oil-based. The paint can be applied with a roller or brush. A roller should only be used with flat panels and a brush should be used with panels that have ridges or grooves. Allow the primer to dry for 24 hours. Follow the primer application with an acrylic paint designed for use with plastic. Generally, this kind of paint will have ingredients that make it more flexible. Plastic paint comes in container or spray form. Either kind is equally effective at sticking to the paint. If the paint bubbles up, remove the paint and mix in some paint thinner with the primer; 5 to 10 percent thinner to 90 to 95 percent primer is a good ratio.

How to Design a Travel Mug

Travel mug is  designed with sealed lid that keeps liquid contained but available for sipping while traveling. Numerous websites and businesses offer the capability of personalizing travel mugs for promotional or personal gifts. Customers have a myriad of choices when it comes to mug style, but placement of the artwork falls into a specific area and size. For best results, follow the printer's suggestions and guidelines when designing the perfect travel mug.
1.Choose a printer that offers travel mugs as a printing option for gift items.
2.Choose a style of travel mug offered by the printer. Request a sample mug to work with---the printer will probably charge for this sample, but it is worth the cost to make sure the artwork fits.
3.Request information on the size and type of artwork required by the printer for the style of vacuum bottle chosen. Inquire about the use of color in the artwork. Some companies will only print a single color, while others will offer a two-color imprint.
4.Design the artwork using the parameters given by the printer. Use logos, company names, titles of special events, personal symbols or original designs. Work in black and white for easy visual translation of the image.
5.Periodically print the design, cut it from the paper and attach it in the appropriate place on the travel mug to create a prototype. View the mug with the design from a short distance and by placing it where the user would typically put it down: his or her desk. Check for readability and impact. Make sure the travel mug design conveys the desired message.
6.Choose a final design, save the artwork in the file type required by the printer and send it to the printer.

How to Make a Vacuum Chamber Glass Bottle

A vacuum chamber can be made from practically any airtight container. The power of the vacuum bottle and the type of container you use will determine the amount of pressure of the vacuum. A powerful vacuum could cause the container to implode or collapse if the container is not sturdy enough. But the amount of vacuum created by a small pump for a science project is different than the amount of vacuum needed for professional applications. One way you can check to see if your vacuum is working is to put a partially inflated balloon in the chamber and see if it expands.
1.Cut a small piece of tubing about 4 inches long. Place one end of the plastic tubing through the hole in the center of the rubber stopper. Feed the tube until it starts to emerge through the small end of the stopper. If your stopper does not have a hole in the center use a corkscrew or small drill to make one.
2.Connect the tubing from the top of the stopper to one end of the shut-off valve. Make sure the seal is tight. Cut another length of tubing, approximately 12 inches. Connect one end of the tubing to the other end of the shut-off valve. Connect the other end of the tubing to the vacuum pump. Place the stopper tightly in the top of the bottle.
3.Open the shut-off valve. Use the pump to remove air from the chamber. When you have removed as much air as you want, turn the shut-off valve into the closed position. You can them remove the tubing connecting the stainless steel bottle. Your vacuum chamber is now ready.

How Does a Mixer Vacuum Tube Work?

Vacuum tube mixers have been used to alter electrical signals since the invention of the vacuum tube. A mixer circuit can change the frequency of an electrical signal, or it can delay the signal to change the waveform (also known as changing phase).
How a Vacuum Tube Works
A vacuum tube is an active electronic device that uses electromagnetic energy to alter an AC input signal. Before 1947, vacuum tubes were commonly used in amplifiers and rectifier circuits.
When voltage is applied to a vacuum tube's terminals, electrons begin to flow from the vacuum tube's cathode to the plate terminal. This allows electrical current to pass through the vacuum tube. When a vacuum tube is used in conjunction with capacitors and resistors, the vacuum tube circuit can be used to modify the output signal in relation to the input signal.
Electronic Mixer Circuits
Audio mixers often employ hundreds of variable and fixed-value capacitors, inductors, and resistors. Audio mixers often employ hundreds of variable and fixed-value capacitors, inductors, and resistors.
A mixer circuit takes an AC input signal and changes the signal's frequency, phase, or both. A mixer often contains capacitors, resistors, and/or inductors to modify the output AC signal with respect to the input signal, to suit the user's needs. In the case of an audio mixer, for example, the AC signal can be modified to boost the bass (low-frequency) or treble (high-frequency) parts of the signal. The mixer can also be used to delay or reverberate (phase shift) the output signal.
Two identical AC signals inverted with respect to each other can cancel each other out if the signals are combined.

The Uses of Crushers in an Industry

A crusher is a general name for a heavy-duty device designed to crush rocks and minerals into smaller rocks, gravel or dust. The equipment may be used in a wide range of contexts across various industries. Types of materials crushed in crushers include clay, coal, lime, potash, salts and fertilizer.
Cage Crushers
A cage crusher uses large internal hammers to crush materials. They include a cage at the top of the device used to filter out rocks of particular sizes that do not need to be crushed. The cage may be adjusted in order to allow rocks of different sizes to pass through. Cage crushers are used in advanced coal processing to make coke, a type of fuel derived from coal and petroleum. They are also used to carry out fine grinding of industrial materials such as salt and lime and to crush wet salt at solar salt plants.
Roll Crushers
A roll crusher uses one or more rollers with rows of sharp and hard teeth attached to them. As the rollers turn they crush and cut rocks and minerals into the desired size. Speed and timing of these rollers may be adjusted to suit the specific purposes of the operator. Roll crushers are used to reduce oversized ash into smaller units so it may be stored in silos. They are also used in oil refineries to crush different types of coke, in chemical plants to crush hot chemicals and in nickel processing plants to crush raw nickel with high moisture content.
Impact Crushers
Impact crusher uses a massive metal plate to crush materials to the desired size. An impact crusher has a bigger reduction ratio than crushers that use hammers. Impact crushers are used to crush limestone, chamotte, calcium carbide, quartz, slag and coal, among other materials. It is found in the cement, fireproof material manufacturing, building, ceramics and glass industries.
Green Crushers
There are also crushers currently in use in industry considered green devices. For example, green crushers are used in petroleum plants to crush petroleum-derived coke. Because it is more environmentally friendly, use of these devices often results in a lighter environmental impact as well as fewer fines associated with the violation of environmental regulations.

How to Make a Soda Can Ball Mill

To produce thermite, which is a composite substance made of aluminum powder, you'll generally need to use a machine called a ball mill. A ball mill is a mechanical apparatus that is driven by a motor to turn a cylinder for a long period of time. Inside the cylinder are the grinding materials, which are referred to as "balls." It's important that you don't use anything that can emit sparks when friction is introduced with the aluminum, or you can lose all of the charge power from the thermite. To build a ball mill that will help you make thermite from aluminum cans, you'll need to follow a specific process.
1.Attach the metal rods to each end of the cylinder you use. Your cylinder has to be closable on at least one end so that you can retrieve the materials you mill. The metal rods should look as if they've been shoved through the cylinder from end to end. These will be the ends you set into the bracing that will allow it to spin.
2.Run the belt around the drive pulley on your motor and the cylinder, and mount them in a manner that pulls the belt tight. If you don't have the correct tension, the slippage that is created will make your mill inefficient. You can either put the belt directly on the cylinder and wrap something around the cylinder so that the belt doesn't slide, or you can put the belt around one of the metal rods on either end of your cylinder.
3.Put your ball material in the cylinder with your milling material. Your ball material should be made out of lead or another material that will not spark as it tumbles, and your mill material in this case is your soda can grindings. You'll have to have ground your cans up at least into small pieces, because they should be much smaller than the size of your ball material. Secure the cover on your cylinder once you've placed your materials inside of it, and activate the motor. Stop the motor every three to four hours and check that consistency of your milled aluminum.

How to Build a Hard Drive Enclosure

An internal hard drive from 10 years ago will not fit into a typical modern computer cause but that does not mean the drive is useless. You can build an external hard drive using a kit readily available at any computer supply store. The kit will allow you to easily connect the old hard drive to your new computer through a USB port.
1.Open the ssd drive enclosure case. Attach the power cable and interface connector to the old hard drive that you would like to resurrect. Place the drive in the case and slide the cover over the top of the case.
2.Fasten all four corners of the enclosure case shut using the screws supplied with the kit.
3.Connect the enclosure's power cord to an available outlet. Connect the USB cable to an available port on your computer.
4.Click "Start," then "Computer." Double-click the external hard drive. If the drive responds and you are able to drag files to your desktop from the drive, or from the drive to another storage device, your recycled hard drive in the enclosure case is available for you to use.

How to Bend a Polycarbonate Sheet

Since polycarbonate is a thermoplastic, heat is required to form, bend or mold a polycarbonate sheet. Open flame or unventilated ovens create a safety hazard, as toxic fumes are released from the plastic if it is heated beyond its melting point of 300 degrees F, according to Dyna lab Corporation. To heat the polycarbonate sheet evenly, you need to use a device designed for heating plastic. A heat strip uses an electric current to create heat. Since you are able to control the temperature of the heat strip, there is little chance of overheating the polycarbonate sheet.
1.Set the heat strip on top of the worktable.
2. Measure the height of the heat strip with the tape measure.
3.Stack the two-inch pieces of 1/2-inch plywood on both side of the heat strip until the top of the wood is even to or slightly above the top surface of the heat strip.
4.Plug in the heat strip and set the temperature of the heat strip to 300 degrees Fahrenheit. Allow the heat strip to reach the set temperature before continuing.
5.Remove the protective coating from both sides of the polycarbonate sheet--if the sheet has a paper protective coating, or if you are bending the sheet in a U shape.
6. Mark the location of the bend on each edge of the polycarbonate sheet with the permanent marker and put on your leather work gloves.
7.Place the PVC sheet on top of the heat strip. The bend location marks you placed on the edges of the sheet need to be aligned with the center of the heat strip.
8. Hold one side of the polycarbonate sheet with one gloved hand and slightly lift the other side of the sheet with your other gloved hand to test the softness of the plastic. If the polycarbonate sheet does not lift easily, leave the plastic on the heat strip.
9.Remove the polycarbonate sheet from the heat strip when the plastic bends easily. Immediately bend and hold the polycarbonate sheet to bend the polycarbonate sheet.

How to Clean a Pro Audio Speaker

Cleaning a pro audio speaker not only keeps it looking its best, but also provides a great opportunity to inspect the unit for wear and damage. A pro audio speaker will last for years if properly maintained, but will still need the occasional jack, cone or even diaphragm replaced. A clean pro audio cabinet also looks newer and retains its value, as well as reflecting positively on its owner. Read on to learn how to clean a pro audio speaker.
1.Use a hose attachment, preferably without a brush, to vacuum the front grille, even if it is metal. If the grille is easily removed, vacuum underneath it as well as both sides. Carefully vacuum speaker cones if they can be accessed. Whether or not the grille is removable, inspect the speaker cones as closely as possible for signs of tearing.
2.Vacuum the outside of the cabinet if it is carpet covered. Clean plastic or vinyl covered cabinets with glass cleaner or auto interior cleaner and a clean cloth.
3.Inspect the casters or feet of the cabinet. Tighten any loose screws.
4.Clean any plastic or metal jack plates using the cloth with a small amount of cleaner applied to it. The cloth should be damp not wet. Logo plates on a pro audio speaker can also be cleaned in this way.
5.Stretch the cloth over the end of a speaker cable. Apply a small amount of contact cleaner (not lubricant) and quickly insert and remove from each quarter inch jack. There is no easy way to clean other ceiling outside speaker connections.

About Forklift Trucks

An industrial-powered lift pallet truck, more commonly known as a forklift, can efficiently and safely move cargo and merchandise throughout the logistical supply chain. From warehouse to transportation to stocking, the forklift is a critical part of inventory movement and management.
Types of Forklifts
Forklifts come in all shapes and sizes depending on the job they are intended to do. There are narrow aisle trucks, side loaders, sit-down units and reach forklift truck. Each is designed to perform a specific task in a specific environment.
Forklift Safety
More than 100 people are killed each year in the United States in forklift accidents. An additional 20,000 people are seriously injured. This comes to more than 385 serious injuries every week.
Types of Power
Forklifts can be powered by propane, gasoline, diesel or electricity. Each has its advantages, and the type of truck used will generally depend on the environment and unique conditions of the facility.
Special Attachments
Most forklifts will have heavy metal forks used to lift the cargo. Depending on the cargo, lifts can be equipped with clamps, buckets and a variety of hoists.
Space Utilization
he narrower the travel isle required, the more space a warehouse or distribution center can dedicate to merchandise. For this reason, many forklifts are designed to operate in very narrow isles and have extremely tight turning radius.

How to Make Soft Beds

A nice soft bed is wonderful to sink into after a long day. If your bed isn't currently as soft as you'd like it to be, there are some simple things you can do to make it as comfortable and luxurious as the beds at fine hotels. You'll find yourself looking forward to bedtime.
1.Strip your bed base down to the bare mattress. Flip the mattress over.You should actually flip your mattress every other month to keep it from developing permanent depressions. Spray the mattress with Febreeze to freshen the fabric.
2.Shake the mattress pad to redistribute the down. Place the down-filled mattress pad on top of the mattress.
3.Put the cotton fitted sheet over the top of the mattress pad. Follow the fitted sheet with a flat sheet. Tuck the corners of the flat sheet underneath the mattress.
4.Insert the down-filled comforter into the cotton duvet. This can be tricky for large sizes like queen and king. To make it simpler, lay the duvet out on the floor. Fold the comforter into thirds. Insert the folded comforter into the duvet. Then unfold the comforter once it's inside the duvet. Place the comforter-filled duvet on the bed.
5.Put pillow cases on all four of the pillows. Stack the pillows neatly at the head of the bed. Fold the blanket or quilt and place it at the foot of the bed. If you take a nap during the day, use the blanket or quilt so you don't have to remake the bed.

How to Replace an Electric Water Heater Element

If you don't seem to have the same amount of hot water available as you had before, you may have a bad heating element in the water heater. Over time, the heating elements can become coated with calcium carbonate from the water and its efficiency may reduce. It is a far cheaper repair to replace the element than to buy a new water heater. The removal and installation of a new element is a simple job.
1.Turn off the power to the water heater. Make sure that everyone knows that you are working on the water heater and they should not turn the breaker on the electrical panel box back on.
2.Remove the access panel at the top of the water heater using the screwdriver to expose the heating element. There are two elements on the heater, one in the top and one in the bottom. You should remove them both.
3.Test the resistance of both elements by setting the multimeter to read X1000 and attaching one lead to one of the screw terminals and the other to a heating wire mounting screw. If the reading is anything other than infinity, you should replace the element. Test the other element also to determine if it also needs to be replaced.
4.Attach the hose, close the water inlet valve and open the drain valve to drain the heater. This is necessary before removing the elements from the heater.
5.Unscrew the terminals from the element and unbolt the element from the heater. Chances are very high that the lower element has a much greater build up of calcium carbonate on the element than the upper element.
6.Make sure that the heater element that you purchase is the same configuration and model and is rated the same.
7.Replace the elements in the reverse order and make sure you secure the mounting bolts and terminal screws.
8.Make sure the drain valve is closed, then remove the hose. Reopen the water inlet valve and allow the heater to refill before turning on the electricity again.
9.Replace the access panels over the two elements and finally turn on the breaker to the hot water heater.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

Positive Displacement Pump Types

The purpose of a pump is to move fluids. The two types of pumps are dynamic pumps, which use velocity to move fluid, and positive displacement pumps, which move fluid by trapping a fixed amount of fluid and then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe.
According to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the three main positive displacement pump types are reciprocating, metering and rotary pumps.
Reciprocating Pumps
Reciprocating pumps use a piston and cylinder with suction and discharge valves built into the pump. The pump draws a volume of liquid into the cylinder through the suction valve on the intake stroke and discharges the liquid under positive pressure through the outlet valves on the discharge stroke.
Classifications of reciprocating pumps include direct acting or indirect acting, single or double acting, high pressure or low pressure, and vertical or horizontal.
One type of reciprocating pump is the direct-acting steam pump, which has a steam cylinder end that is in line with a liquid cylinder end, with a straight rod connection between the steam piston and the pump piston or plunger.
The diaphragm pump, which uses use a flexible diaphragm to move liquid, is a direct-acting reciprocating pump, commonly used to pump water from a ditch or sump.Another type is the power pump, which converts rotary motion to low-speed reciprocating motion using a speed-reducing gear. Power pumps are generally very efficient and can develop high pressures but do tend to be expensive.
Metering Pumps
Metering pump provides precision control that delivers a specific amount fluid into a system. Metering pumps are available that are compatible with a variety of flows, pressures and fluids. According to Engineer's Edge, metering pumps are used to control contamination or leakage between fluid systems, provide specific control flow relative to discharge pressure, maintain an accurate fluid output capacity or isolate a fluids system.
Rotary Pumps
Rotary pumps use a rotating vane, screw or gear to progressively create one or more chambers with each revolution of the drive shaft. Clearances between rotating parts, and between rotating and stationary parts, are kept to a minimum to reduce slippage (leakage of fluid from the pump's discharge back to its suction). According to Engineer's Edge, the close clearances in rotary pumps makes it necessary to operate them at relatively low speed for reliable operation and to maintain pump capacity.
The many types of positive displacement rotary pumps generally fall into three categories: gear pumps, screw pumps and moving vane pumps.

Struts Used in Gratings

Gratings are a little-appreciated part of every day life, from covering holes in the sidewalk to protecting valuable parts of your computer. Gratings are made out of a variety of materials, from steel to plastic, and consist of a series of struts enclosed by a frame. The type of strut used varies, depending on the use of the grating. Struts have a variety of features, including strength, flexibility and slip resistance.
Grip Strut
Grip struts are most often made out of stainless steel or expanded brass or aluminum. They require little maintenance, and are used in the industrial, construction and municipal engineering fields because of their durability, resistance to corrosion and ability to support heavy overhead loads. They can be used as wells and drain covers, and as safety grating, due to their slip-resistant nature. Grip struts can be purchased in both standard and heavy-duty form.
Steel Strut
Steel struts, also known as bearing bars, are normally in-built in standardized gratings. Based on your need, you can select your strut thickness and the distance between the struts. The minimum strut thickness is 22 millimeters but 30, 40 and 50 millimeter struts are also available. The strut gap distance is important; if your grating will be used for drains on a sidewalk, the spacing must be such a child's foot will not fit through it. Steel struts and gratings are used for drain covers, plug grill plates, pool covers and staircase boards.
Wire Strut
Wire struts are typically made out 1.5- to 6-millimeter strips of perforated metal. The struts are positioned very close together in a crisscross fashion, and then welded or wound together to form a mesh. This can be in a square, diamond or cross stitch fashion. As the wire is flexible and breaks easily, mesh gratings are small, and, unlike steel and grip struts, are not used in areas where there is human footfall. Instead they are used to cover open areas of machinery, such as the fan ventilation system of computers.

What Is a Wheel Loader?

Wheel loaders are large vehicles often used in the construction industry and other heavy industries to load large quantities of materials (grit, asphalt, rubble) into containers, onto conveyor belts or to a different location for landscaping. Wheel loaders normally have a large square bucket that is attached by movable arms and can tilt to empty out its contents.
Types of Wheel Loader
Smaller loaders are called compact loaders. Smaller loaders are called compact loaders.
Wheel loaders with a movable bucket on an arm in the rear are called backhoe loaders. Larger machines with a bucket to the front that is as wide, or even wider than the vehicle, are known as front loaders. Smaller versions of loaders are available for areas where access might be difficult for large machines, these are known as compact wheel loaders.
Backhoe Loaders are better for digging. Backhoe Loaders are better for digging.
Front loaders with large buckets can safely carry large quantities, but they cannot lower the bucket far below the wheelbase of the machine. Backhoe loaders have a smaller bucket on the rear that cannot carry as much material but can be used to dig and lift materials from much lower than the machine's wheelbase.
Bulldozers Vs. Wheel Loaders
Bulldozer has tracks; forkli have wheels. Bulldozers have tracks; wheel loaders have wheels.
While these machines are similar to bulldozers, wheel loaders are wheeled while bulldozers are tracked like tanks. Wheels give wheel loaders greater mobility and speed, and allow them to travel more frequently on normal highways. The use of tracks on bulldozers give them greater power, strength and better traction on loose surfaces.

Commercial Lighting Requirements

According to the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), a nonprofit public benefits corporation in North America, lighting represents about 40 percent of the energy consumption in the commercial building sector. The Pike Research website also adds that lighting currently represents about 17.5 percent of all global electricity consumption.
Independent Lighting Controls
An independent lighting control that allows occupants to control unneeded lighting is required for each space surrounded by floor-to-ceiling partitions. These controls must be located in a specific space within the lighting location or have a switch coming from a remote location. Each switch for the controls of all lighting resources available in the area must have indicators identifying the lights served and their statuses (off or on).
Occupants must also be able to individually control any display or LED light, case and task lights and nonvisual and demonstration lighting. The only exemptions to individual lighting control options are: security or emergency areas that must be lit continuously, and lighting in stairways or corridors that people use to enter or exit.
Light Reduction Controls
An occupant in a commercial lighting establishment must be able to reduce connected lighting by at least 50 percent. Once reasonable illumination is conducive to the area, an occupant must be allowed to control the light levels to save energy through any of the following light reduction control options: dimmer switches; alternating luminaries; and alternating luminaire lamps.
Light reduction control exemptions are provided in the following: areas with only one luminaire; areas controlled by occupancy sensor, corridors, storerooms, restrooms or public lobbies; and sleeping units.
Automatic Lighting Shutoff
An automatic lighting shutoff control device is required in all buildings larger than 5,000 square feet. A building is defined as: any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy; or any commercial structure surrounded by exterior walls and fire walls. The automatic shutoff function for all lighting of buildings can be done using time-scheduling devices, occupant-sensing devices or any similar shut-off system with the ability to indicate that an area is unoccupied.
Exempted spaces for this requirement are: sleeping units; lighting for patient care; or any cases that automatic shutoff could endanger occupant safety or security.

How to Stretch Wire Mesh Fence

Wire mesh fences are a simple, cheap way to fence off areas. Unfortunately, wire mesh fence is often seen as a temporary solution, as it tends to stretch and flex, which can make the fence snag. Learn to stretch your wire mesh properly in order to make the fence a more useful and long-lasting.
1.Space your fence posts no more than 8 feet apart. Dig post holes every 6 to 8 feet down your boundary line. Pour concrete in the holes and insert the fence posts. Use a level to make sure the fence posts stand straight.
2.Cut two two-by-fours to the height of the sintered wire mesh to act as stretchers.
3.Drill round-head bolts every 8 inches along the length of the wire stretchers. Do not tighten them all the way down.
4.Wrap the end links of the laminated mesh around the bolts on the wire stretchers. Screw the bolts in tightly around the mesh. Make sure to wrap enough wire mesh around the boards so it is secured tightly.
5.Affix one of the wire stretchers to a fence post. Use at least 4-inch carpentry screws to attach the bottom, top and center of the wire stretcher to the outside of the fence post. If you pull the wire mesh out, it should run perpendicular to the wire stretcher and fence post.
6.Tie a hand-cranked chain pulley tautly to the next fence post. Affix the chain hook to the center of the non-attached wire stretcher. Crank the fence into the next post. Crank slowly, allowing the wire time to stretch without snapping as it becomes more and more taut.
7.Lock the pulley's crank teeth into place. Screw down the other wire stretcher onto the post. Unlock and detach the hand crank.

Watts Used by Industrial Machines

The watt is an international unit of measurement of electrical power. A kilowatt is equal to 1,000 watts. The energy use of industrial machinery is commonly measured in kilowatts or kilowatts per hour. Kilowatts per hour, or KW/h, refers to the amount of kilowatts used to keep a machine running for one hour. This information will usually be listed on the machine's nameplate as KW or KW/h.
500-Ton Centrifugal Liquid Chiller
Centrifugal liquid chillers are industrial HVAC units used to cool large commercial spaces. Conventional rule of thumb says that a nominal ton of air conditioning provides enough cooling for approximately 500 to 600 square feet of building space. Therefore a 500-ton centrifugal chiller would be used to cool a 250,000 to 300,000 square foot building. This machine is rated by the manufacturer at .48 KW or 480 watts per ton of cooling. This means that this chiller running at full capacity should use approximately 240 KW or 240,000 watts per hour.
Continuous Fusing Heat Press Machine
This machine is used for industrial heat transfer. It operates continuously with constant heat and a belt speed of 8.7 meters per minute and is able to fuse materials with a width of up to 600 millimeters. This dry cleaning machines have  a heater (heaters are notorious power gluttons) that is rated at 4.2 KW or 4,200 watts. It also has a motor rated at .60 KW or 600 watts. Therefore, this machine under normal conditions will consume approximately 4,800 watts per hour or 4.8 KW/h. You need to make sure you're considering the power usage of all the components of a machine when trying to find its watts usage.
400-kg Capacity Industrial Washing Machine
This machine is the type typically used in textile factories to pre-wash fabrics. It is driven by a powerful motor, rated at 11 KW or 11,000 watts per hour. Notice that there is no electrical heating element in this industrial washer. If electrical heating of any sort were incorporated into this machine, the watts usage would be substantially higher.

How to Troubleshoot Dashboard Warning Lights

A red light on the dashboard can mean you should stop driving right away, or you may have a little time before you have to bring your car into the shop. Know what's what so you don't get stuck.
Critical Warning Light
1.Brake Light. Make sure you are not driving with hand brake on. Check brake-fluid level. Top off brake fluid if low and make appointment to check brakes. Driving with brake light can be dangerous; deal with this soon. Call tow truck or drive carefully and slowly to shop.
2.ABS (anti lock brake system) Light. Indicates either low brake-fluid level, stuck brake caliper or faulty ABS. Check brake fluid and make appointment to get brakes checked. Call tow truck or drive carefully and slowly to shop.
3.Oil Light. Either engine is very low on oil or there is no oil pressure. Pull over and turn off engine immediately. Check oil level and add oil if low. Turn engine back on to see if light has gone off. If oil light is still on, bad oil pump (no oil pressure) is likely. Call tow truck.
Maintenance Lights
4.Check safety Light. Car's computer senses engine problem. Difference in performance may not be noticeable, but make appointment to have car diagnosed. This usually cost around $65-$75 to do. OK to drive. If problem is serious, computer may switch to limp-home (low-power) mode and you won't have option of waiting to bring car into shop.
5.Air Bag Light. Get air bags checked. Problem could prevent them from activating in accident. OK to drive, but not safe in accident.
6.Battery Charge Light. Alternator is not charging. OK to drive, but turn off any unneeded electrical devices (radio, heater, defroster) and avoid starting engine more than necessary. Bring car into shop soon to avoid getting stranded. When alternator is not charging, battery loses charge and car stops working.
7.Emissions Lights (O2 sensor, EGR, check emissions). Depending on car model, these lights may indicate problem with emissions sensor or may light up at certain mileage, usually 60,000 miles (100,000 km). Get sensors checked. OK to drive. If problem exists, car might get poor gas mileage.

How to Hang Safety Lights

Home safety is something everyone must deal with these days and the market has no short supply of products designed for protecting homes. Barred windows and alarms are a helpful and useful way to keep burglars and vandals away from your property. However, a cheap but effective mechanism for protecting your home is a properly installed safety lighting system. Make sure you are comfortable dealing with live circuits before you install your safety light, however.
1.Shut off the power to the electrical outlet you will be working on. Trip the pertinent circuit breaker in your fuse box and use a voltage tester to ensure the power is off.
2.Remove the existing light fixture if there is one.
3.Unscrew all the light bulbs from the security light's sockets. If you leave them in, it will be more difficult to properly wire the socket.
4.Connect the wires to the socket with wire connectors. Connect the black hot wire from the LED light to the black hot wire from the outlet. Connect the neutral white wires. The green ground wire should remain connected to the outlet.
5.Push the wiring back into the outlet. Place the new fixture on the outlet and secure it with a screwdriver or cordless drill. Screw the light bulbs back in the sockets.
6.Place the motion detector beneath the light. Check your instruction manual to determine the exact distance it covers and how sensitive the sensor is, then point it in the direction you want and screw it onto the fixture if necessary.
7.Test the light. Go back to the fuse box and turn on the power. Go outside to check whether your light works. Best way to do this is to walk past the sensor to see whether the warning light turns on.

How to Print on Non-Woven Interfacing Fabric

Screen printing enables you to print on many surfaces. The same technique can be used to print on nonwoven fabric, wood, metal, paper and glass. The type of ink used to print an image will depend on the type of surface you wish to print on. To print on fabric, you will need to use fabric ink. When learning to screen print, use designs that will be simple to cut out.
1.Select a design to print on your interfacing. This can be hand drawn or chosen from copyright-free images on your computer. Print or draw the image onto an A4 acetate sheet.
2.Put thick cardboard on your work surface. Place the acetate sheet on top of the cardboard. Cut out the areas of the design that you want to print. This creates an acetate stencil of the design.
3.Cover your work surface with newspaper. Lay the interfacing fabric flat on top of the news papered surface. Smooth out any creases or wrinkles in the desired print area. Place the stencil on top of the interfacing in the area that you want to print.
4.Place the screen on top of the stencil. Line up the edges of the stencil and the screen. Use masking tape to tape off any areas on the underside of the screen that are not covered by the stencil.
5.Place the ink at the top of the screen. Use a squeegee held at a 45-degree angle to pull the ink down the screen.
6.Pull the screen up from left to right. The stencil will come away with the screen. This will reveal your printed interfacing fabric. Leave the print to dry.
7.Repeat steps 4 through 6 for additional prints of the same image. Once you have finished printing, pull the stencil off the screen. Wash the screen, stencil and squeegee in water. Leave to dry.

Problems With Compact Track Loaders

Compact track loaders are practical tools for a variety of construction-related jobs. Like all mechanical equipment, however, they are subject to a variety of drawbacks, limitations and mechanical failures. Some of these issues can be mitigated by proper maintenance, while others can be solved by making sure that a compact track loader is truly the right tool for the task at hand.
Debris in the Tracks
As with any piece of machinery, deferred maintenance can lead to a host of issues. Through regular use, the tracks of a compact track loader are prone to collecting debris such as mud, dirt or rocks, depending upon how and where the equipment is being used. If these materials are allowed to remain in the tracks and harden they can cause damage. This problem can be avoided by cleaning the debris from the tracks after every use, although this may feel a bit labor intensive after a while.
Mechanical Issues
Despite their name, compact track loaders are most commonly used for digging jobs. However, according to Crawler Loader, this type of machine is rarely the best option for the task. The site maintains that track machines have a a reputation for "major mechanical problems." Amongst these is throwing a track, or losing maneuverability and momentum.
Balance Issues
Balance issues in a compact loader may largely be the result of improper use. For example, throwing the bucket of a compact loader too high can cause the loader to get out of balance. Additionally, DV Depot cautions that an operator should never use a compact track loader to push anything that might have the capacity to push back, such as flexible or bouncy materials. These materials can throw a compact loader off balance and result in serious injury. While other machinery may have more force to stabilize against such loads, an operator should remember that a compact loader is not suited for such purposes.

How Does an Excavator Work?

Power and Drive
An excavator runs on diesel power because it produces a higher horsepower and is more robust for heavy duty labor. The engine powers the tracks which are similar to tank tracks, and the hydraulic motors which raises and extends the excavator arm. All power is supplied by the diesel engine, and the controls for movement in forward and reverse are operated from the control cabin. An operator will use pedals and levers to move the bulldozer forward and backward, and to steer the vehicle.
Excavator Arm
The arm of the excavator is attached to the lower part of the frame chassis. This arm has three hydraulic pistons with chromed steel piston arms. The arm has two main sections and a bucket loader. The two main sections are jointed with a hinge. One piston is attached to the underneath side of the first section and one on the top side of the second section. When the first piston extends, the rod pushes against the arm and raises it, extending the section. The second arm contracts or expands, raising and lowering the second section for more reach. An additional hydraulic piston moves the bucket loader forward and backward so the arm can scoop and dig.
Track Steering
The tracks are rigid and fixed in place. They are stationed around a series of gears that turn by power received from the drive shaft, connected to the engine. When in gear, the tracks roll the machine forward or backward in a straight line. To turn the machine, one track is stopped completely, and the other is put in motion, either in forward or reverse. This causes the machine to turn in an arc. An operator can also put one track into reverse and another into forward to spin the machine in a tighter circle. This requires two separate drive systems, and a more complicated transmission. It is not available on all vehicles. In addition, some excavators have a pivoting cab that can swivel 360 degrees. This is powered by another hydraulic motor that receives drive from the main engine.

How to Calculate the Weight of Stainless Steel Tanks

Stainless steel tank--used to store fuels, various liquids or grain--come in many sizes, but always have a cylindrical shape. The weight of mixing tank depends on its weight density as well as its volume, or space it occupies. The compactness of the atoms comprising the object determine weight density. The relevant dimensions needed to find the cylinder's volume are its height, thickness and radius. Radius measures the distance from the center of the cylinder's circular top to its edge.
1.Measure the height and thickness of the cylinder in inches. For example, say the height and thickness measure 78 inches and 2.0 inches, respectively.
2.Measure the circumference, or distance around the cylinder in inches. Assume a circumference of 370.0 inches as an example.
3.Divide the circumference by 2 times the pi to determine the radius in inches. Use 3.14 for pi. Continuing the example, you have 370.0 inches divided by 6.28 which equals a radius of 58.9 inch.
4.Convert the height, thickness and radius to feet by dividing by 12, because each foot contains 12 inches. In the example, performing this step leads to a height of 6.5 feet, a thickness of 0.17 feet and a radius of 4.9 feet.
5.Multiply 6.28 times radius times height times thickness to obtain the volume of the cylinder in cubic feet. Continuing the example, you have 6.28 times 4.9 feet times 6.5 feet times 0.17 feet, or a volume of 34.0 cubic feet.
6.Multiply the weight density of stainless steel by the volume to get the weight of the tank in pounds. Completing the exercise leads to 487 pounds per cubic foot times 34.0 cubic feet which equals 16,558 pounds.

How to Make a Bouncy Ball

The bouncy ball is a timeless toy. They are super cheap, and can provide hours of entertainment for the whole family. In fact, take a bouncy ball down in the basement and watch parents and children chase it around for hours. You don't have to be a child to enjoy a good bouncy ball. Did you know you can easily make your own bouncy ball? In fact, it is actually quite simple and a fun activity to do with kids. This article explains how you and your kids can make your own bouncy balls for little cost in little time. Remember that these are choking hazards for small children.
1.Place the water in a bowl. Dump the alcohol into the bowl with the water glass and immediately begin stirring. You want the alcohol to combine with all of the water glass. This combination will cause a chemical reaction to occur.
2.Stir quickly with the Popsicle stick until the substance turns into a whitish solid. This should only take a couple of minutes for the chemical reaction to take place. Just keep stirring until the entire substance has transformed into a solid.
3.Put on the rubber gloves and pick up the solid substance. You want to protect your skin because the material will still be soft and wet and could cause irritation. At this point, there will be no definite shape to the ball. It will just feel like a messy blob. Ball definition comes with the next step. Keep the children back from the mess.
4.Roll and squeeze into a ball until the outside of the bouncy ball no longer breaks and crumbles. You may have to roll the ball between your two hands for 5 to 10 minutes or so. Eventually, it will resemble a real bouncy ball. Go ahead and try it out.
5.Squish the bouncing ball back together if it breaks after using. Most commercial bouncy balls don't typically break, but homemade bouncy balls can. Unlike regular bouncy balls, however, this bouncy ball can be repaired if it is broken for any reason. Simply squeeze and roll it back together.

How to Make Crystal Lighting Fixtures

Crystals have long been added to light fixtures. The different angles of crystals capture the light and multiply it causing a sparkle effect. This effect adds drama, excitement and romance to a room. Add crystals to older light fixtures to give them a new appearance. Crystals can replace or be added to shades, glued to light fixture arms and frames, and mounted along the support structures to hang like dangling jewels. You can make almost any light fixture into a crystal lighting fixture with a few tools, some glue and a lot of sparkling crystals.
1.Choose outdated LED lighting fixtures you may already have in your attic or garage. Select a fixture with a sturdy metal frame that is in good working order. Remove the light bulbs and tape over the opening where the bulb screws in using painter's tape. Clean the fixture of any rust, dirt or debris. Lightly sand the metal if the fixture has a shiny finish to allow your new paint to adhere.
2.Spray paint the fixture in a neutral updated color that will match other fixtures in your home. Hang the fixture from the branch of a tree so you can spray all sides easily. Spray with short even strokes. Make several thin passes to avoid overspraying and drips. Allow the fixture to dry four hours.
3.Cut crystal bead strings to fit the length of each arm of your fixture. Start from the center and move outward. Glue bead strings on the underside of the largest arms first. Keep in mind that your crystals are seen from below. Use a hot glue gun to attach the beads. Swag bead strings between arms for a draped effect. Glue the end beads to the arms with hot glue to hold them in place.
4.Organize your crystal drops from largest to smallest. Wire each drop with 20 gauge wire. Insert wire into the drop and bend the end so that the wire cannot pull back out. Thread on any additional crystals you wish to add to the wire. Form a hook on the top end of the wire.
5.Attach the large crystal drops first. Create a balanced appearance so that the fixture doesn't look lopsided or heavy in any area. Position the next smallest drops second. Continue hanging drops until the fixture has the appearance you like.

How to Install Gabion Baskets

A gabion basket is used for river control, retaining walls and landscaping. It is a piece of mesh or woven wire that gets filled with rocks. Depending on material, the shape of a gabion basket can be customized to the owner's specifications, and the basket can be filled with the type of rock desired. The process for installing a gabion box involves a lot of time and heavy lifting.
1.Clear the area and make sure the surface is flat and tightly packed down.
2.Place the gabion basket into the desired position.
3.Place a metal post through the bottom of the gabion basket and set it in cement for added stability.
4.Fill the gabion basket with your choice or rocks.
5.Install metal fasteners to close off the basket.
6.Place the next gabion basket into position. Attach it to the first basket using metal fasteners. Repeat the process as many times as desired.

UL Cable Rating

Underwriters Laboratories Inc. is an independent company that conducts safety and performance testing on a wide variety of products, including wire and cable. The company's website notes that in 2010, there were 66,932 manufacturers worldwide producing UL-certified products. You can tell if a network cable has been rated by UL by looking for the "UL" designation on the side of the cable, with additional details on the tag the UL wire cable came with.
Underwriters Laboratories requires that participating manufacturers label the cable directly with its rating. A local area network (LAN) and fiber optic cable that has been rated by UL must have "UL" printed on the cable, either in parenthesis or in a circle. The cable must also have the manufacturer's name, trademark or UL file number printed on it. The UL file number begins with an "E" in the format "E-xxxx." Local area network cables also display the xlpe wire cable type, the size and number of conductors in the cable, as well as the cable's temperature rating. Both types of cable must also be tagged with a UL verification label, which includes the above information as well as the cable footage and a UL issue number.
LAN Cable Safety Ratings
Local area network cables are marked with one of six designations to identify their safety rating by UL. "CM" indicates a cable is intended for general use within buildings; "CMG" indicates the same as "CM," with the additional indication that the damage height of the cable does not exceed 59 inches; "CMP" indicates plenum-rated cable for use in ducts or above plenum ceilings; "CMR" indicates the cable is rated for use within buildings in vertical shafts; "CMUC" indicates the cable is rated for use below carpet; "CMX" indicates the cable is rated for use within buildings enclosed in noncombustible tubing or nonconcealed spaces if that space does not exceed 10 feet; and "CMX" cable that is also marked "Outdoor" can be used outdoors.

How to Clean a Stainless Steel Bottle

Stainless steel bottles are ideal for taking a drink on the go. Cleaning a  stainless steel bottle is a necessity to remove any residue from the bottle. Furthermore, the bottle may rust if not cleaned and dried properly. Using the proper products to clean stainless steel bottles will help to ensure the bottle lasts for a long time.
1.Wash brand-new stainless steel bottles before using. Fill the bottle with equal parts white vinegar and water. Let it soak overnight. This will remove the metallic taste from the bottle and help to prevent it from rusting.
2.Empty the contents of the bottle promptly after use. Rinse the vacuum bottle with plain water.
3.Fill a sink with warm water. Add a few squirts of dish soap. Use your hands to mix up the soap and water.
4.Place the bottle into the sink of soapy water. Use a soft rag to clean around the lip or lid of the bottle. Slosh the bottle around in the water several times to clean the inside. The mouth of the bottle is likely quite narrow, making it impossible to get your hand down inside. Use a baby bottle brush to clean any caked-on grime from the inside of the bottle, if necessary.
5.Rinse the bottle with plain water. Dry the exterior of the bottle with a dish towel. Turn the bottle upside down on a dish towel to dry.
6.Put 1/4 to 1/2 cup uncooked rice into the bottle for an alternative method for cleaning the inside. Fill the bottle halfway with white vinegar and shake it up well. The rice and vinegar will clean the inside of the bottle.
7.Discard the rice and vinegar. Slosh the bottle around in the sink with warm, soapy water. Rinse well and allow the bottle to air-dry.

Homemade Waste Oil Purifier

Engine oil keeps your car running smoothly. Over time, it picks up dirt and debris and needs to be replaced. You can made waste oil purifier ,do oil recycling and reuse it, saving money and reducing waste.
Place one container on the floor, and place another container on a bench so that it's atop the container below it. Run a length of rope between the two containers so that one end is inside each container, touching the bottom. Add waste oil to the top container. The capillary action of the rope fibers, combined with gravity, will draw the oil down into the bottom container, leaving dirt behind.
Purified waste oil can be re-used as an engine lubricant. It can also be burned in an oil heater to provide heat.
Purified engine oil does not have the detergents and lubricants found in new oil. Therefore, mix new oil with old oil. One quart of fresh oil has enough additives for three quarts of purified oil.

How to Troubleshoot Your Water Heater

Lacking hot water heater is no fun. And discolored, smelly water is just as bad. What to do?
1.Make sure the breaker hasn't tripped, if you have an electric unit and are not getting any hot water. Press the reset button on the thermostat inside the access panel if a tripped breaker isn't the problem.
2.Suspect a buildup of sediments in the water-heater tank if the hot water is discolored or is taking a long time to replenish. If this is the case, you'll need to drain the tank completely and flush it with clean water.
3.Check the water heater's temperature settings if you have noisy plumbing. It might be too hot, and the noise may be the result of steam building up in the pipes.
4.Make sure you aren't running multiple appliances that use hot water - running the dishwasher and the washing machine will make your shower short and not so sweet.
5.Notice whether the water smells like sulfur. Sometimes bacteria that live in the water get out of control. A good dose of chlorine will usually take care of the problem.
6.Check the water temperature and solar energy when the tank is full. Run hot water from the tap over a thermometer. It should be within 5 degrees of the thermostat setting. Replace the thermostat if there is a larger discrepancy.

How to Troubleshoot a Plastic Extruder Machine

Plastic pipes, tubing, fences, deck railing, window frames and wire insulation; everyday products that you probably completely take for granted, without thinking for a moment where they come from or how they are produced. Well, the process of plastics extrusion probably played a part in their production -- that is the process which sees raw plastic melted before being formed into a continuous structure and to carry out this task you will need a working extrusion machine.
1.Check that the power is switched on to your machine before considering any other problems. Ensure the power unit is connected to the extruder as well as a power source and make sure that power source is switched on.
2.Allow the barrel to come up to working temperature, without passing any plastic through it. This will allow any residue from the previous use -- although it really should have been cleaned after use -- to melt away. This residue can sometimes cause the drawing machine not to run properly.
3.Look to see whether there is oil present in the gearbox. This could be an indication that the oil pump has been turned off or the gear box may have overheated -- issues which can cause the extruder to shut down.
4.Make sure there is a proper supply of water getting to the gearbox. For this, the water pump must be on to cool the oil in your gearbox; if it isn't, then you risk the entire unit overheating and subsequently shutting down.
5.Reset the torque converter before restarting the extruder if maximum torque is reached. This is another fault which will cause the extruder to automatically shut down.

Magnetic Separation Process

Magnetic separation is an industrial process that uses a magnetic field to separate magnetic separator from non-magnetic ones. Iron, for example is highly magnetic; magnetic separation is sometimes used to separate iron ore from surrounding silicate rock. Magnetic separation can also be used to separate ferrous materials, or materials that contain iron, from industrial waste streams before they can contaminate water supplies.
Magnetic fields
When any mineral is exposed to a magnetic field, it is either drawn by the field or not. Particles that are drawn to the field are called magnetic. There are different sorts of magnetic separators, but the most common is the drum. Essentially a stream of material is dropped onto the outside of a magnetic drum. Non-magnetic or weakly magnetic particles bounce or fall off of the drum. The remaining magnetic particles stick to it until they are scraped off.
Impact grinding
Sometimes, after passing around the first drum, the remaining material hits what is called an impact grinder or impact mill. The impact grinder contains a rapidly spinning wheel that increases the speed of the falling material. The particles then strike what is called an impact block, shattering into even smaller bits. Some mining companies order custom-made grinders that reach several stories high. The smashing of the non-metallic leftovers often reveals particles that are metallic but were covered in non-metallic matter and did not stick to the drum originally.
The pieces, which can be as small as half an inch around, then fall onto a screen. The tiniest bits, which are most likely sand particles, are sieved through the screen. These bits of worthless rock and other silicates are called gangue. The gangue is generally discarded. After this screening process, the remaining material is then further dropped onto a second magnetic drum where the process repeats. What material remains will be metal concentrate.
Cost and Types
Magnetic separation is a popular and low-cost method of recovering metals. In addition to the drum method, many other types of separators exist. These include, but are not limited to, pulleys, discs, belts and rings. Flotation machine is used primarily by mining industries but also by environmentalists on industrial wastes and even by those who study space materials. Magnetic separators can be used either "wet" or "dry" and come in countless shapes and sizes.

How to Upgrade a Solid State Drive in a Laptop

Unlike a traditional hard drive, which contains a spinning internal disk, a solid-state drive uses a microchip to store data. This drive contains no moving parts. It's a very high-tech storage device for your computer, but it contains the same interface as a regular hard drive. This means that it fits in your computer the same way a regular hard drive does, so the removal and replacement procedure is no different from a standard hard drive.
1.Turn off your laptop computer and remove the power cable along with any peripheral cables connected to the unit.
2.Close the screen and turn the laptop upside down. Slide the battery out of its compartment on the bottom of the laptop.
3.Locate the hard drive compartment on the bottom of the computer. Consult your user guide if you are having difficulty locating the compartment. The hard drive compartment is usually the largest of the compartments on the bottom of your laptop.
4.Remove the screws securing the compartment cover and lift it up to expose the solid state drive.
5.Slide the hard drive out of the laptop. If your old hard drive is enclosed in a metal frame then remove the screws on the corners of the frame and remove the hard drive.
6.Fit the solid-state drive in the frame, if there is one, and replace the screws. Fit the drive into the compartment, making sure the interface at the bottom of the drive plugs securely into the port in the hard drive compartment.
7.Replace the compartment cover and screws.

How to Make a Fleece Tied Blanket

Fleece blankets are a wonderful and wonderfully easy gift to make for babies, children and adults, alike. The variety of fleece material available allows you to customize blankets for anyone. Best of all, no sewing skills are necessary. The directions below describe how to make a blanket out of two panels of fleece by cutting and tying the edges together for a fringe or "tied" airplane blanket.
1.Choose two pieces of fleece. You can choose two pieces that are the same pattern, two different patterns, two plain colors or a pattern on one side and a plain color on the other.
2.Measure off lengths of each panel appropriate for the person you are making the blanket for. Recommended measurements are as follows: 1 to 1 1/2 yards of each fabric for a baby or toddler blanket; 1 1/2 to 2 yards of each fabric for a child's blanket; 2 yards or more of each fabric for a teenager or adult blanket.
3.Align one piece of fleece atop the other on a flat surface. Trim off any selvage so both pieces of fabric match. Try to cut in a relatively straight line, but it doesn't need to be perfect.
4.Measure and cut out a 4 X 4 inch or 3 X 3 inch square of cardboard or heavy paper. This will be the length of the blanket fringe prior to tying. If you would like longer or shorter fringe, use a larger or smaller cardboard square.
5.Line up your cardboard square with a corner of your fabric. Using the square as a template, cut through both pieces of fleece around the square. Repeat with all four corners.
6.Lay your ruler or tape measure along the edge of the fleece and mark 1 inch intervals. Use fabric chalk to mark, or cut a little ways through both pieces of fabric at each 1 inch interval. You may also simply eyeball the intervals if you have an experienced eye. Cut the fringe at your 1-inch intervals along all four sides of the blanket. The depth of the fringe should match the depth of the corners.
7.Make the blanket fringe by taking aligned pieces of fringe from each piece of fabric. Tie square knots or double overhand knots. Complete one side of your travel blanket, and then each of the remaining three sides.

How to Form a Polycarbonate Sheet

Polycarbonate is a type of thermoplastic used for items such as windshields, lenses and headlights. It is a durable plastic that resists shattering, making it preferable to glass in many cases. You can purchase polycarbonate sheet from plastic suppliers for use in household projects. For instance, you might want to use it in place of glass for fragile items in display cases or shelving. It is also possible to change the shape of these sheets. With a few basic tools, you can form polycarbonate into customized shapes to suit your needs.
1.Set the temperature on your plastic strip heater to between 340 and 365 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature allows the plastic to become pliable without warping.
2.Remove the sheet's masking from the bend spot. Polycarbonate comes with a thin film attached to both sides to keep it from scratching. You may want to remove all of it before forming. At the very least, you will need to remove the film from the area you are bending.
3.Lay the plastic on the strip heater. Make sure that only the area you want to bend is aligned on the heating element. You may want to mark the desired bend spot on the edge of your polycarbonate sheet before placing it on the strip heater.
4.Wait for the polycarbonate to soften. The sheet will first sag in the heated area, causing the ends of the PVC sheet to curl slightly. Once it is heated completely, the ends relax and you can begin forming it.
5.Form the polycarbonate into the desired bend. Move quickly after removing the sheet from the heating source, because polycarbonate hardens quickly.
6.Hold the bend in place. After just a few minutes, the polycarbonate retains the new shape on its own.

How to Collect Old Tin Boxes

Collect history when you collect old tin can . Tin boxes, used to store valuable and perishable items in days gone by, are a popular collectibles. Find old tea, tobacco or food tins at rummage sales or auction houses. Enjoy the pictures found on the storage containers of the past and see the world as it was when tins were used to store and advertise the items people used in everyday life.
1.Travel to flea markets, antique stores and other places that sell collectible items. Find tins that once contained tea, tobacco, aspirin and other household items. Consider collecting only certain types of tins or certain types of designs. Decide if you want to collect for pleasure, profit or both.
2.Buy a guide about collectible antique tin boxes or borrow one from your local library. Research the prices you can expect to pay and what to look for in authentic tin box. Visit websites such as Collectors Weekly to learn more about old tins and ways to identify authentic antiques. Learn the language and history of the old tins you intend to collect.
3.Start collecting. Buy tins you enjoy and want to display. Check prices on McKenzie's Sporting Collectibles website or at a reputable local dealer to find tins that are in demand. Remember, the collectors market is fickle. A tin worth hundreds today may be worth much less tomorrow. Buy old tins in good condition, it affects their value. Enjoy the art and advertising that appears on each old tin you buy.

How to Change a Baby's Diaper

Not much has really changed since the days of diaper pins - whether you choose to go the route of cloth or sanitary napkin, you'll follow more or less the same procedure.
1.Lay a fresh diaper on a changing table, or on a towel or mat on the floor.
2.Place your baby, tummy side up, on top of the clean diaper.
3.Unfasten the diaper tabs on the soiled diaper.
4.Hold your baby's feet together and very gently lift them up, raising the baby's bottom. Use the clean part of the diaper to wipe away any excess stools, then fold over the soiled section of the diaper and set the old diaper aside.
5.Wipe your baby's buttocks and genitals gently from front to back with baby wipes. Don't forget the lower back and the skin folds of the thighs. (A baby girl might get stools around her labia and vagina, so clean that area gently with baby wipes.)
6.Lower your baby's bottom onto the clean diaper.
7.Pat the area dry with a towel; cornstarch powder is optional.
8.Apply diaper-rash cream to the area if necessary.
9.Make sure to pull up the back of the clean baby diaper high enough to prevent leaks. Position the front of the diaper just under the baby's abdomen.
10.Bring the tabs around from the back of the diaper and fasten them to the front.
11.Turn diapering into a game of peek-a-boo to distract your baby.

How to Build a Rock Crusher

Stone crusher come in many shapes and sizes, from the strictly hand held to the complex industrial sizes, which can crush tons of rock and ore in one day. Making your own jaw crusher invariably requires you or someone you know to possess some basic welding skills. Iron is the ore of choice when it comes to breaking rocks into hand-sized pieces, and a skilled or even semi-skilled welder are the only people who can shape iron. This particular kind of rock crusher is perfect for homeowners or amateur prospectors.
1.Using your tape measure and permanent marker, measure and mark the center of the iron board.
2.Center the 4-inch diameter pipe on the mark.
3.Activate your arc welding torch, don you welder's mask, and weld the 4-inch pipe to the iron board. Let stand until cool to the touch.
4.Pour the quick dry cement in a wheelbarrow or metal tub, follow the mixing directions on the package. You will not need to use more than 2 lbs. of cement at most.
5.Using a trowel, pack the capped 6-inch iron pipe with wet cement.
6.Quickly insert the 3-foot iron rod into the cement. Move it until it stands at the center of the pipe. You may need to prop it in place by fixing a C-clamp to it and laying the clamp on the top of the pipe. Let the cement dry---even quick-dry cement may take 4 to 6 hours to set.
7.Use the cemented rod pipe as a piston, driving it down into the 4-inch base pipe to crush rocks.

How to Replace a Speaker Woofer

The woofer is the biggest speaker in a Pro Audio Cabinet. It is removed simply by unscrewing and gently prying the basket from the cabinet face. Oftentimes, woofer repair is as simple as replacing speaker surrounds or patching a tear in the cone. The former requires no removal of the entire woofer assembly; the cone patching is best done by removing the speaker basket (the metal frame). Detach the speaker wires for complete removal of the woofer and replace it with a new woofer.
1.Remove the speaker grill (if there is one on the cabinet).
2.Unscrew the speaker woofer basket from the cabinet. The screws are usually Phillips-head, although they can be any type of wood screw.
3.Use a knife or flat-head screwdriver to ease the basket from the wood frame.
4.Lift the woofer out of the cabinet. Once the woofer is removed, detach the wires from the woofer's contacts.
5.Cones can be patched with paper of an equivalent weight and a little white glue. Spread a thin film of glue on a paper patch and attach the patch to the rear of the cone.
6.Foam surrounds can be replaced separately. Clean the metal frame of old surround residue. Apply adhesive to the metal frame (supplied with repair kits) and press down with your fingers until bonded.
7.Apply a thin bead of adhesive around the perimeter of the cone front and press the surround repeatedly around the cone circumference until bonded.

How to Use Huggable Hangers

Closet space is a treasured commodity in our culture of ever-changing fashion trends. The typical clothes hanger helps to clear space in the lower portion of a closet, but can leave the shoulder area of blouses, shirts and sweaters bumpy and oddly stretched. "Huggable Hangers" are designed to kill two birds with one stone--to save closet space and prevent strange bumps on the shoulders of hanging clothes.
1.Hang your dresses, t-shirts and strapped tops on the "Velvet Hangers" to keep their shape consistent and natural. All Hug gable Hangers are covered in a soft velvet material, designed to keep straps and ruffled sleeves from slipping. Place the hook of your Hug gable Hangers on the horizontal bars in your closet to hang up your clothes and create space on the floor.
2.Drape your slacks, jeans and pants over the "slacks hangers." These specially designed hangers feature a wide velvet-covered crossbar to prevent accidental wrinkles across the middle of your garments. Slack hangers are also designed to hang on the horizontal bars in your closet.
3.Attach "finger clips" to the bottom of slack hangers to pinch pants of any variety in place. The pinching action eliminates the possibility of inadvertent wrinkles, instead holding the garments in place with powerful clips that are thinly designed to maximize horizontal closet space.
4.Add "cascading mini-hooks" to the crossbar of slack hangers to add a dimension of verticality to your hanging clothes. Using the mini-hooks, you can hang one Hug gable Hanger from the crossbar of another. Continue adding mini-hooks to have as many as four garments hanging from one hanger attached to your closet bar.